The Earliest States of Eastern Europe
DG-2015, 12-43

The Short Life of the Follis: The Circulation of the Large Copper Coins in Early Byzantine Empire

P. V. Shuvalov

The paper presents the reconstruction of the coin circulation based on the
investigation of the representative coin hoards of copper coins – folles and halffolles
– from main regions of early Byzantine Empire (Balkans, Danube, Aegaeis
and western Asia Minor, as well as Syria and Palestine), minted in the mints of
Propontis and Antiochia from AD 498 till 610. At the beginning of this work
the hoards were formally classifi cated according to their structure with the help
of the histograms coins-per-year (mon./an). Then the periods of the presence/
absence of the chronological groups of the coins in the fi nds were invented, e.g.
four periods of Maurice: m1, m2, m3, m4. The histogram of each hoard is based on
these periods and calculated using the index coins-per-year-of-the-period (mon./
an.per.). The typology of the hoards is based on the seriation of the histograms
of the hoards, the types are named according to the more representative fi nds. In
those cases, when we do possess the data about the weight of the coins, it is also
taken into the consideration. The model of the development of the circulation is
proposed. The role of each hoard type in the circulation is discussed: whether
the hoard refl ects the circulation or consists of the coins being taken out from
it. As a result there is proposed the relative chronology of the types. In some
cases the correction of the absolute date of some hoard types is proposed, e.g.
type PRA (hoards like Prakhovo, Rafaḥ, Ryakhovets) should be dated to the
late years of Justin II, reign of Tiberius and fi rst years of Maurice. Finally a
reconstruction of the duration of circulation of main chronological groups of the
coins of the mints of Propontis was proposed.

Keywords:
Byzantine, numismatics, hoard, follis, monetary circulation
References

Герасимов Т. Съкровища от монети, намерени в България през 1960 и
1961 г. // Известия на археологическия институт. Българска академия на
науките. София, 1963. № 26.
Кулаковский Ю.А. История Византии. Т. I–III. СПб., 1996.
Потин В.М. Монеты. Клады. Коллекции. СПб., 1993.
Серов В.В. Финансовая политика Юстиниана Великого. Новосибирск; Бар-
наул, 2011.
Толстой И.И. Византийские монеты. СПб., 1912–1914. Вып. 2–6.
Шувалов П.В. Монеты между археологией и нумизматикой // Археологиче-
ские вести. СПб., 1999. № 6. C. 374–403.
Шувалов П.В. Изобретение проблемы (по поводу книги Флорина Курты) //
Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana / Петербургские славянские и
балканские исследования. 2(4). 2008. СПб., 2009. C. 13–20.
Шувалов П.В. Случайные флюктуации или преднамеренный отбор? Три
клада фоллисов посл. четв. VI в. // Stratum-plus. Археология и культур-
ная антропология. Кишинев, 1999. № 6. С. 104–110.
Шувалов П.В. Проникновение славян на Балканы // Основы балканского
языкознания. Языки балканского региона. Часть 2 (славянские языки) /
ред. А.В. Десницкая и Н.И. Толстой. СПб., 1998. С. 5–28.
Юрукова Й. Монетни находки, открити в България през 1973 и 1974 г. //
Археология. № 20. Вып. 2. София, 1978. С. 72–77.
Юрукова Й. Монетни находки, открити в България през 1980 г. // Археоло-
гия. № 24. Вып. 1. София, 1982. С. 62–65.
Catalogue of Byzantine Coins in Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the
Whittemore Collection / Ed.: A.R. Bellinger, Ph. Grierson. Washington, D.C.,
Vol. I–II. 1966–1968.
Curta F. Invasion or Infl ation?: sixth- to Seventh-Century Byzantine Coin
Hoards in Eastern and Southeastern Europe // Annali dell'Istituto Italiano di
Numismatica. 43. 1996. P. 65–224.
42
Curta F. The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower
Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge, 2001.
Curta F., Gândilă A. Hoards and hoarding patterns in the early Byzantine
Balkans // Dumbarton Oaks Papers. № 65–66. Washington, D.C., 2012.
P. 45–111.
Dimitriu S. Histria. Monografi e arheologică. Vol. I. București, 1954.
Duncan G.L. Coin Сirculation in the Danubian and Balkan Зrovinces of the
Roman Empire, AD 294–578 / Royal Numismatic Society. Special Publication
№ 26. London, 1983.
Hahn W. Moneta Imperii Byzantini, 3 Bde. Wien, 1973–1981.
Hahn W., Metlich M. A. Money of the Incipient Byzantine Empire (Anastasius I –
Justinian I, 491–565) / Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Numismatik und
Geldgeschichte der Universität Wien. Wien, 2000.
Ivanišević V. Les trésors balkaniques, témoins des invasions et de leurs routes //
Morrisson С., Popović C., Ivanišević V. Les Trésors monétaires byzantins des
Balkans et d’Asie Mineure (491–713) / Avec la collaboration de P. Culerrier,
B. Mitrea, M. Oeconomidou, Gh. Poenaru Bordea, I. Popović, I. Touratsoglou,
J. Youroukova, M. Galani-Krikou et Y. Nikolaou. Paris: Lethielleux, 2006.
P. 75–93.
Jurukova J. Trouvailles monétaires de Sadovetz // Uenze S. Die Spätantiken
Befestigungen von Sadovec (Bulgarien). Ergebnisse der Deutsch-BulgarischÖsterreichischen
Ausgrabungen 1934-1937 / Münchener Beiträge zur Vorund
Frühgeschichte. Bd. 43. München, 1992. S. 279–328.
Kondić V. Le trésor de monnaies de bronze de la forteresse protobyzantine de
Bosman // Нумизматичар. № 7. 1984. S. 51–56.
Lilčić V., Adžievski K. Coin hoard discovered in the Veles district // Macedonian
numizmatic journal. № 3. 1999. P.73-82.
Mirnik I. Ostava bizantskog novca s Majsana // Нумизматичар. 1982. № 5.
S. 141–146.
Mirnik I. Coin hoards in Yugoslavia / British Archaeological Reports,
International Series. № 95. Oxford, 1981.
Morrisson C., Ivanišević V. Les emissions des VIe–VIIe siècles et leur circulation
dans les Balcans // Morrisson С., Popović C., Ivanišević V. Les Trésors
monétaires byzantins des Balkans et d’Asie Mineure (491–713) / Avec la
collaboration de P. Culerrier, B. Mitrea, M. Oeconomidou, Gh. Poenaru
Bordea, I. Popović, I. Touratsoglou, J. Youroukova, M. Galani-Krikou et
Y. Nikolaou. Paris, 2006. P. 50–73.
Morrisson С., Popović C., Ivanišević V. Les Trésors monétaires byzantins des
Balkans et d'Asie Mineure (491–713) / Avec la collaboration de P. Culerrier,
B. Mitrea, M. Oeconomidou, Gh. Poenaru Bordea, I. Popović, I. Touratsoglou,
J. Youroukova, M. Galani-Krikou et Y. Nikolaou. Paris, 2006.
Morrisson C. Les événements / perspective chronologique // Le monde byzantin.
Tome 1. L'Empire romain d'Orient 330–641 / sous dir. de C. Morrisson. Paris,
2004. P. 3–75.
43
Noeske H.-Ch. Münzfunde aus Ägypten I. Die Münzfunde des ägyptischen
Pilgerzentrums Abu Mina und die Vergleichsfunde aus den Dioecesen Aegyptus
und Oriens / Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike / hrsg. von M. R.-Alföldi
und H.-M. von Kaenel in Zusammenarbeit mit der Römisch-Germanischen
Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Frankfurt am Main.
Bd.12. Berlin, 2000.
Peter M. Rez.: Duncan G.L. Coin circulation. // Schweizerische numizmatische
Rundschau. Bd. 75. 1996. S. 263–269.
Popović V. Petits trésors et trésors démembrés de monnaie de bronze
protobyzantins de Serbie // Нумизматичар. 1984. № 7. С. 57–90.
Preda C., Nubar H. Histria. Vol. 3, Descoperiri monetare, 1914–1970. București:
editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Româniă, 1973.
Zuckerman C. Du village à l’Empire: autour du registre fi scal d’Aphroditô
(525/526). Paris: Peeters, 2004.