The Earliest States of Eastern Europe
DG-2016, 394-405

About a Manor and a Borough

M. V. Vinokurova

This paper is dedicated to the bright memory of Galina Glazirina – my true
friend, many-talented and skillful researcher. Being a specialist in the sphere of
Icelandic history and philology, she was interested in a great number of various
themes of general history, including Medieval and Early Modern England.
Sometimes we were talking about our research practices…
My paper offers a number of problems connected with specificity and dual
social nature of the center of the Pembrokes’ estates in Wiltshire (England,
1500–1630s), which is denoted in the manorial surveys simultaneously as а
«manor» (feudal and Early Modern estate) and а «borough» (small town). This
center is described in the manorial sources in one and the same row with typical
manors according to traditional scheme of description. A number of criteria,
demonstrating this center (named Wilton) as a dual social phenomenon are put
forward. Main «manorial» characteristics of Wilton were the following: considerable
role of agricultural occupations of the population, remains of domain land
and common pastures, tenements of typically manorial type, specifically feudal
operations with land, juridical and administrative organizing of inner existence
according to manorial functioning (manorial court, but not a town council).
Main «urban» features were: additional non-agricultural occupations of population
– crafts, trade, combined with agriculture, market place as a center of
the borough, small area of holdings and some others. Phenomenon of «urban
manor» seems to be very important for economic and social growth of Early
Modern England. Together with other factors, having been noticed by the scholars
(e.g.: early capitalist development of English village, early dispersed country
manufacture, encloses, differentiation of peasantry, etc.), it testifies to transitional
character of the period. Nowadays such an example of social development
of an Early Modern period as borough of manorial nature is being also studied
in the researches of some scholars from abroad; but nevertheless it still remains
rather a mysterious phenomenon of the world historiography.

England, Early Modern period, the Pembrokes, manor, manorial surveys, borough, manor and borough’s criteria, copyhold, freehold, market, trade, manorial court, custom

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