The Earliest States of Eastern Europe
DG-2021, 562-568

Tartarar bǫrðvz i Vngaria (Annales Regii, s.a. 1241)

T. N. Jackson

The paper discusses the entry in the Icelandic “Annales regii” s. a. 1241, containing, among other data, information about the invasion of the Mongols (whom the annals call Tartarar) in Hungary. This event shocked the whole Christian Europe and caused panic, witnessed by the annalists of such distant from Hungary countries as the Netherlands and Spain. The mere presence of this information in the Icelandic annals is not particularly surprising, but the issue of penetration of this information onto a distant island in the depths of the Atlantic Ocean is of research interest. As the analysis shows, the main information included in this entry goes back to the narratives of the Icelandic sagas, while the information about the Mongol invasion of Hungary was, with high probability, borrowed by Icelandic “protoannals” from the Danish annals, Annales Lundenses in particular, where it is likely to have come to through church channels, primarily through a letter of Pope Gregory IX from June 16, 1241.

Keywords:
Tatars, Hungary, Icelandic annals, Icelandic sagas, Danish annals
References

Григорий IX. Письмо римского папы Григория IX с призывом помогать венгерскому королю Беле IV от 16 июня 1241 г. / Перев. А.С. Досаева // URL: http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Italy/XIII/1240-1260/Gregor_IX/brief_pomos_bele_16_06_1241.phtml?id=9167 (последнее обращение 15.06.2020). [Grigoriy IX. Pismo rimskogo papy Grigoriya IX s prizyvom pomogatvengerskomu korolyu Bele IV ot 16 iyunya 1241 g. (A letter from Pope Gregory IX calling to help the Hungarian King Bele IV of June 16, 1241) / Trans. by A.S. Dosaev.]

Джаксон Т.Н. Hófvz Tartarar secundum quosdam: сведения о татарах в исландских анналах // Золотоордынское обозрение. 2019. Т. 7, № 4. С. 616–635. [Jackson T.N. Hófvz Tartarar secundum quosdam: svedeniya o tatarakh v islandskikh annalakh (Hófvz Tartarar secundum quosdam: Information on Tatars in Icelandic Annals) // Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2019. Т. 7, № 4. S. 616–635.]

Стурла Тордарсон. Сага об исландцах / Пер. и коммент. А.В. Циммерлинга. СПб., 2007. [Sturla Þorðarson. Saga ob islandtsakh (Íslendinga saga) / Transl. and comment. by A.V. Zimmerling. St. Peterburg, 2007.]

Хаутала Р. От «Давида, царя Индий» до «ненавистного плебса сатаны». Антология ранних латинских сведений о татаро-монголах. Казань, 2015. [Khautala R. Ot «Davida, tsarya Indiy» do «nenavistnogo plebsa satany». Antologiya rannikh latinskikh svedeniy o tataro-mongolakh (From “David, King of the Indies” to “Detestable Plebs of Satan”: An Anthology of Early Latin Information about the Tatar-Mongols). Kazan, 2015.]

Хусаинов В. М. Датские средневековые анналы о Древней Руси // Электронный научно-образовательный журнал «История». 2019. T. 10. Вып. 9 (83) [Электронный ресурс]. Доступ для зарегистрированных пользователей. URL: https://history.jes.su/s207987840007498-6-1/ (последнее обращение 15.06.2020). [Khusainov V. Datskiye srednevekovyye annaly o Drevney Rusi (Danish Medieval Annals on Old Rus’) // ISTORIYA. 2019. Vol. 10. Issue 9 (83).]

Boulhosa P.P. Of Fish and Ships in Medieval Iceland // The Norwegian Domination and the Norse World, c. 1100 – c. 1400 / Ed. by Steinar Imsen. Trondheim, 2010. P. 175–198.

Flateyjarbók. En Samling af norske Konge-Sagaer med indskudte mindre Fortællinger om Begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt Annaler / Guðbrandr Vigfússon, C.R. Unger. Christiania, 1860, 1862, 1868. Bd. I–III.

Guzman G.G. Simon of Saint-Quentin and the Dominican Mission to the Mongol Baiju: A Reappraisal // Speculum. 1971. Vol. 46, № 2. P. 232–249.

Jackson P. The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410 (The Medieval World). L.; N.Y., 2014.

Danmarks Middelalderlige Annaler / Udg. ved E. Kroman. København, 1980.

Hákonar saga Hákonarsona // Icelandic Sagas, and Other Historical Documents Relating to the Settlements and Descents of the Northmen on the British Isles / Ed. by Gudbrand Vigfusson. Vol. II. L., 1887. P. 1–360.

Islandske annaler indtil 1578 / Udg. ved G. Storm. Christiania, 1888 (reprint – Oslo, 1977).

Oddaannálar og Oddverjaannáll / Eiríkur Þormðsson og Guðrún Ása Grímsdttir gafur út. Reykjavík, 2003.

Pow S. “Nationes que se Tartaros appellant”: An Exploration of the Historical Problem of the Usage of the Ethnonyms Tatar and Mongol in Medieval Sources // Zolotoordynskoe Obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2019. Vol. 7, № 3. P. 545–567.